تعیین و رتبه‌بندی آلاینده‌های آب

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مربی گروه مهندسی صنایع، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار،عضو هیات علمی گروه مهندسی صنایع، دانشکده فنی دانشگاه تهران

3 استاد دانشکده فنی، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

امروزه آلودگی آب یکی از مشکلات و چالش‌های مهم دنیاست که می‌تواند یکی از علل اصلی بیماری‌ها و مرگ‌و‌میر در جهان به‌شمار آید. آب‌های سطحی و زیرزمینی هر دو در معرض آلاینده‌های مختلف قرار دارند. با توجه به ماهیت و منشأ ورود آلاینده‌ها (طبیعی یا ایجادشده توسط انسان) تقسیم‌بندی‌های مختلفی برای آلاینده‌ها در نظر گرفته‌ شده است. عمده آلاینده‌های آلی آب ناشی از صنایع نفت و پتروشیمی، چهار منبع (معیار) اصلی کشاورزی، شیمیایی، نفتی و غذایی است. هریک از این چهار معیار آلودگی خود زیرمعیار‌هایی دارند. در این پژوهش به بررسی، شناسایی و رتبه‌بندی دقیق آلاینده‌های آب در صنایع نفت و پتروشیمی (حوزه شهری استان تهران) با استفاده از روش‌های تحلیل مؤلفه‌های اصلی و فرایند تحلیل شبکه‌ای پرداخته شده است. نتایج به‌دست آمده از روش تحلیل مؤلفه‌های اصلی بیانگر این واقعیت است که آلاینده‌های سرب، نیترات و سدیم به‌ترتیب بیشترین امتیاز را از خبرگان محیط زیست در حوزه آلایندگی آب به‌خود اختصاص داده‌اند. همچنین استفاده از فرایند تحلیل شبکه‌ای نشان داده آلاینده‌های کشاورزی با وزن 321/0 در رتبه اول و آلاینده‌های نفتی با وزن 152/0 در رتبه چهارم قرار دارند. امید است با ارائه این پژوهش، سازمان‌های مربوطه برای جلوگیری از تخریب محیط زیست با آلاینده‌های صنعت نفت و پتروشیمی گام مؤثری بردارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Identification and Prioritizing of Water Contaminants

نویسندگان [English]

  • abolfazl rohani 1
  • abbas keramati 2
  • jafar razmi 3
1 Department of Industrial Engineering, Payam Nour University (PNU), Iran. P. Box: 19395-3697 School of Industrial Engineering, College of Engineering Alborz Campus, University of Tehran, Iran.
2 School of Industrial Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
3 School of Industrial Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Nowadays, Water contamination is one of the major problems and challenges in the world that can be considered as one of the main factors of diseases and mortalities in the world. Both surface and ground waters are exposed to the different contaminants. With regard to the nature and source of their entrance (man-made or naturally occurring), various classifications have been considered for contaminants. The main organic contaminants of water are agricultural, chemical, oil, and food contaminants. Each of these four groups has sub-criteria. In this research, water contaminants in oil and petrochemical industries have been identified and ranked through using Principle Component Analysis (PCA) as well as Analytical Network Process (ANP) methods. Results of Principle Component Analysis method reveal the fact that lead, nitrate and sodium contaminations have been ranked at the highest level from the environment experts’ point of views regarding water contamination. Furthermore, results of ANP show that agricultural and oil contaminants with the weights of 0.321 and 0.152 ranked first and fourth respectively. Finally, I hope that the relevant organizations can take effective steps to prevent environmental degradation which is created by oil and chemical industries contaminants.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Water Contaminants
  • Analytical Network Process (ANP)
  • Principal Components Analysis (PCA)
  • Oil and Petrochemical Industries
  • Environmental Risks Emphasis
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