مفهوم‌پردازی پدیده شکاف خط‌مشی در فرایند خط‌مشی‌گذاری فرهنگی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 هیئت علمی دانشگاه تهران

2 هیئت علمی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

3 مشاور سازمان فرهنگی هنری

چکیده

در مواجه با پرسش «در فرایند خط‌مشی‌گذاری چه اتفاقی رخ می‌دهد که خط‌مشی‌گذار به آنچه مورد انتظارش بوده است نایل نمی‌آید؟»، متون علمی به‌دنبال پاسخ به خودِ پرسش مذکور نبوده‌اند بلکه بیشتر مدلی برای دور نگه داشتن فرایند خط‌مشی‌گذاری از آسیب‌های احتمالی مربوط به نتایج پرسش فوق را دنبال کرده‌اند. این نوع پاسخ‌ها را می‌توان در انبوهی از مفاهیم متنوع یافت که در این پژوهش در چهار مفهوم انسجام خط‌مشی، دولت کل‌گرا، یکپارچه‌سازی خط‌مشی و حکمرانی شبکه‌ای طبقه‌بندی شده‌اند. هریک از مفاهیم چهارگانه از یک زاویه خاص و مبتنی بر ساختار حاکمیتی کشورهای مختلف دنیا به فرایند خط‌مشی‌گذاری نگریسته است. اما  در این پژوهش، مفهومی جدید تحت عنوان شکاف خط‌مشی ارائه شده است که در ذیلِ آن،  تعریف، گونه‌شناسی و چگونگیِ رخ داد آن را مطرح می‌کند.
حاصل این پژوهش، شکاف خط‌مشی را «دخالت عوامل انسانی یا غیرانسانی در فرایند خط‌مشی‌گذاری که متأثر از مسائل و مشکلاتِ زیست بوم فرهنگ، ساختار و یا فرایند خط‌مشی‌گذاری سبب شوند خط‌مشی‌گذار ارشد به آنچه که انتظار آن را داشته است، نرسد» تعریف کرده و برای آن، دو گونه شکاف مفهومی و فرایندی  پیشنهاد داده است. همچنین، درخصوص چرایی شکل‌گیری چنین پدیده‌ای به دو بحث مجزا پرداخته است. بحث اول، دلایل ایجاد شکاف و بحث دوم عوامل ایجاد آن را بررسی کرده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Conceptualizing Policy Gap Phenomena in Cultural Policy Making Process

چکیده [English]

In asking the question “Whathappensin the process ofpolicy-makingthe result of which is not intended?”, studies have not tried to find the relevant answer. They have tried to come up with a model to keep policy-making away from plausible risks. Suchresponsescan befoundinvarious conceptual forms.Inthis study, it is classified under four categories ofcohesionpolicy, the totalitarian government, integrationpolicy, andnetwork ruling. Each concept has examined policy-making from different perspectives in different countries.Thisstudy aimsto use thestrategyofdata-driventheorizing to extract a descriptivehypothesis. A new concept of policy-making has been offered with its definition, typology, and occurrence. The result of the study defines policy-making as the interference of human or non-human factors arising from the native culture leading the top policy-maker not to achieve the intended outcomes. Two varieties of conceptual and procedural gaps are offered. Moreover, two different viewpoints are put forward on the reasons of such a phenomenon. The former discusses the reasons of the gap and the latter discusses the relevant factors. The reasons of policy gapcan be presented in three sections including culture ecology, policy structureand policy-making process. Also, human and non-human factors are known to cause policy gap and forming process of these factors are explained and demonstrated.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Policy-Making
  • Policy Gap
  • Policy-making Process
  • Culture Ecology
  • policy-making Structure
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