تبارشناسی راهبرد‌های تقنینی حوزه محیط‌ زیست، چالشها و مصادیق

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق بین الملل، دانشکده حقوق، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

2 استاد دانشکده حقوق، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

تضمین التزام همگانی به مقر یکی از اهدافی است که حکومت‌ها در پی دستیابی به آن هستند. از‌این‌رو دستگاه‌های اجرایی، تقنینی و قضایی برای تحقق این هدف هر‌یک وظیفه را متحمل می‌شوند. التزام همگانی به مقررات، اتخاذ رویکرد مناسب و جامع نیاز دارد که با عنایت به هزینه‌بر بودن اجرای مقررات محیط زیستی، تخلف از آنها شایع است. بخشی از این مشکل ریشه در نوع مقرراتی دارد که وضع می‌شوند. قواعد محیط زیستی به‌دلیل مطلوبیت اجتماعی و حمایت از حیات بشری و محیط زیست ضروری است، اما اینکه کدام رویکرد می‌تواند وافی به مقصود باشد مسئله‌ای است که سؤل اصلی این مقاله است. فعالان اقتصادی برای کاهش هزینه‌های خود تلاش می‌کنند تا به‌انحای مختلف، مقررات محیط زیستی را نقض کنند. آنها با این کار منافع خود را تأمین کرده و هزینه‌های اجتماعی ایجاد می‌کنند که رویکردهای مختلف تقنینی به دنبال کاهش آن هستند. هدف این مقاله تبیین این رویکردهاست تا مشخص شود آیا این فرضیه که رویکرد سنتی «وضع قاعده و کنترل» نمی‌تواند وضعیت پایدار و التزام همگانی را فراهم آورد صحیح است یا خیر. روش تحلیل رویکردهای تقنینی در حوزه محیط زیست موضوع ارزیابی این مقاله توصیفی ـ تحلیلی است که از استقرای هر‌کدام از رویکردها با اشاره به مصادیق خاص ملی و بین‌المللی، حاصل شده است. به‌طور خلاصه نتیجه حاصله این است که رویکرد مشوق‌محور منوط به موضوعی که قرار است به نظم در‌آید، لازم و ضروری است و می‌تواند رویکرد سنتی را تکمیل کند و موجب مؤثر بودن، به‌صرفه شدن و کارآمدی مقررات شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Ethnology of Legislative Approaches to Environmental Protection: Challenges and Instances

نویسندگان [English]

  • sadegh jafarzadeh darabi 1
  • ebrahim beigzadeh 2
1 researcher of research center of parliament
چکیده [English]

Securing comprehensive compliance to regulations is one of the purposes that all governments are seeking. For this reason, all legislative, executive and judicial systems make all their efforts to achieve this objective. Therefore, each of them will fulfill a part of this task. Some part of this process refers to the basic issues of the existence or absence of a rule that means whether it is derived from social realities as well as the public needs. Also, whether it conforms to the basic values of the society. But adopting an appropriate approach or policies is considered as another prerequisite to ensure comprehensive compliance. When the necessity of a rule is compromised, the second issue which will be raised is the crystalization. Thus, it is common to violate environmental provisions which are so expensive. Some of these problems rooted in the kind of rules which are enacted. Althogh social desirability of Environmental rules as well as their supports from the society, human life and the environment made them (these rules) to be more important, which approaches can be more fruitful to achieve the objective is the major issue to be addressed in the paper. Firms attempt to violate environmental regulations in various ways in order to reduce their costs. By doing so, they can make they own benefits. This will result in social expenses; then different legislative approaches are aimed to reduce such types of costs. The main objective of this paper is to explain these approaches as well as investigate whether traditional approach of "command and control" can establish a sustainable status for comprehensive compliance or not. In summary, “incentive based” approach should be proposed as a complementary role of traditional approach for the regulatory efficiency legislation or, in other words, the enactment of more efficient laws and regulations.  

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • command and control approach
  • incentive based approach
  • environment
  • economic incentives
1. شیروی، عبدالحسین (1389). «تجارت انتشار»، مجله تحقیقات حقوقی، ش 52.
2. کیس، آلکساندر چارلز، پیتر اچ سند و وینفراید لانگ (1390). حقوق محیط زیست، ترجمه محمدحسن حبیبی، جلد اول، چاپ سوم، تهران، انتشارات دانشگاه تهران.


3. A/63/677 12 January 2009. available at: responsibilitytoprotect.org/implementing%20the%20rtop.pdf
4. Abbott, Kenneth (2010). "The Transnational Regime Complex for Climate Change", Environment and Planning C Government Policy, 30.
5. Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures.
6. Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade.
7. Andzelm, Danuta, Christine Lazaruk and Megan McMulkin-Turvolgyi (2002). "Ontario Emissions Trading: Review and Assessment ", Available at: www.extranet.gov.ab.ca/env/infocentre/info/library/5716.pdf.
8. Baron, David P. and Daniel Diermeier (2007). "Strategic Activism and Nonmarket Strategy", Journal of Economics and Management Strategy, Vol. 16, Iss. 3.
9. Bianchi, Anderia (2016). International Law Theories: an Inquiry into Different Ways of Thinking, Oxford University Press.
10. Breyer, Stephen G. (1982). Regulation and Its Reform, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
11. Clean Air Act, Amendments of 1970.
12. Cole, Daniel H. and Peter Z. Grossman (1999). "When is Command and Control Efficient? Institution, Technology, and the Comparative Efficacy of Alternative Regulatory Regimes for Environmental Protection", Wisconsin Law Review, 887
13. Cullet, Philippe (1995). "Definition of an Environmental Right in a Human Rights Context", International Environmental Law Research Center.
14. Dir 2009/28/EC, annexes I and II.
15. Economic Incentives: Options for Eenvironmental Protection (1991). Report of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Economic Incentives Task Force.
16. Environmental Crimes Case Bulletin, July 2012.
17. Fitzmaurice, Malgosia (2009). Contemporary Issues in Iinternational Environmental Law, Massachusetts United States of America, Edward Elgar Publishing, First Published.
18. Gayer, Ted and John K. Horowitz (2005). "Market-based Approaches to Environmental Regulation", Foundations and Trends R._ in Microeconomics, Vol. 1, No 4.
19. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.
20. Green Energy and Green Economy Act, 2009.
21. Guidelines for Preparing Economic Analyses (2010). "Regulatory and Non-Regulatory Approaches to Pollution Control".
22. Hodgson, Geoffrey M. (1991). "Economic Evolution: Intervention Contra Pangloss", J. ECON, 25 ISSUES.
23. International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, Annex I of MARPOL 73/78.
24. International Experiences with Economic Incentives for Protecting the Environment (2005). Office of Policy, Economics and Innovation Office of the Administrator U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Washington.
25. Judgement, Trial (1998). "Prosecutor v. Zejnil Delalic Zdravko Mucic also known as “Pavo” Hazim Delic Esad Landzo also Known as “ZENGA”". Available at: www.icty.org/x/cases/mucic/tjug/en/981116_judg_en.pdf (accessed at March 2017).
26. Kyoto Protocol Adopted, 1998.
27. Limardi, Michela (2013). "Non-governmental Regulation and the Threat of Market-Based Sanctions", American Political Science Association Annual Meeting Paper.
28. Module of UNIDO, Introduction and user Manual, available at: https://www.unido.org/sites/default/files/200904/training_manual_on_sustainable_energy_regulation_and_policymaking_for_Africa_0.pdf
29. Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 1987.
30. Morag-Levine, Noga (2007). "The Problem of Pollution Hotspots: Pollution Markets, Coase, and Common Law", Cornell Journal of Law and Public Policy, Vol. 17, Iss. 1.
31. Park, Patricia (2011). International Lawfor Energy and the Environment, Second Edition, theTaylor and Francis Group.
32. Potoski, Matthew and Aseem Prakash (2004). "The Regulation Dilemma: Cooperation and Conflict in Environmental Governance", Public Administration Review, Vol. 64, No. 2.
33. Provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977.
34. Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future, available at: http://www.un-documents.net/our-common-future.pdf.
35. Reports of the WTO Panels, Canada Certain Measures Affecting the Renewable Energy Generation Sector, Canada – Measures Relating to the Feen-in Tariff Program WT/DS412/R & WT/DS426/R, 19 December 2012.
36. Rio Declaration, 1992.
37. Scott, Joanne, Smith Tristan, Rehmatulla Nishatabbas and Milligan Ben (2017). "The Promise and Limits of Private Standards in Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Shipping", Journal of Environmental Law, Vol. 29.
38. Tasioulas, John (2003)."The Moral Reality of Human Rights", UNESCO Poverty Project "Ethic an l and Human Rights Dimensions of Poverty: Towards a New Paradigm in the Fight against Poverty" Philosophy Seminar - All Souls College – Oxford (UK) -.
39. The Energy Policy and Conservation Act, 1975.
40. The United States Experience with Economic Incentives for Protecting the Environment (2001). Office of Policy, Economics, and Innovation Office of the Administrator U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Washington, DC, available at: https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2017-08/documents/ee-0216b-13.pdf (accessed at April 2017)
41. http://yosemite.epa.gov/EE%5Cepa%5Ceed.nsf/webpages/EconomicIncentives.html
42. https://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPDF.cgi/40000DNO.PDF?Dockey=40000DNO.PDF
43. https://liveworkgermany.com/2017/05/how-does-the-german-pfand-system-work-and-is-it-effective
44. https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2017-08/documents/ee-0568-50.pdf
45. https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2017-08/documents/ee-0487-01.pdf
46. WT/DS412/AB/R&WT/DS426/AB/R, paras.152-154
47. www.ecolex.org/details/legislation/federal-law-no-89-fz-on-industrial-and-consumer-waste-lexfaoc022617/
48. www.epa.gov/ebtpages/fsgsearch/pdfandwpf2012.808-65.html
49. www.extranet.gov.ab.ca/env/infocentre/info/library/5716.pdf.
50. www.mdba.gov.au/sites/default/files/archived/cap/Striking_the_Balance_Report_97_98.pdf
51. www.unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/kpeng.pdf