مسئولیت بین المللی دولتها در برابر شرکتهای نظامی و امنیتی خصوصی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار دانشکده حقوق، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

2 استادیار دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران

3 استادیار دانشکده حقوق دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

4 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل عمومی، دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه ازاد اسلامی واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران

چکیده

رشد روزافزون شرکت‌های نظامی یا امنیتی خصوصی و مشارکت آنها در مخاصمات مسلحانه داخلی و بین‌المللی موجب شده تا مسائل بسیاری درخصوص آنها مطرح شود. یکی از مهم‌ترین مسائل، تعیین مسئولیت اقدامات تخلف‌آمیز این شرکت‌هاست و اینکه چه دولتی می‌بایست مسئولیت این اقدامات را بر‌عهده گیرد. در این خصوص می‌توان دولت‌ها را به سه بخش تقسیم کرد: دولت‌های استخدام‌کننده این شرکت‌ها، دولت‌های متبوع این شرکت‌ها و دولت‌هایی که این شرکت‌ها در قلمرو آنها به فعالیت مشغول هستند. حال مسئله این است که مسئولیت اقدامات تخلف‌آمیز این شرکت‌ها با کدام دولت است؛ دولت استخدام‌کننده، دولت متبوع یا دولت محل مأموریت این شرکت‌ها. بنابراین جا دارد مسئولیت دولت‌ها روشن و مشخص شود که سهم مسئولیت دولت استخدام‌کننده، دولت متبوع و دولت محل مأموریت این شرکت‌ها در این تخلفات به چه میزان است. این نوشتار بر آن است تا با استناد به موازین و اسناد معتبر بین‌المللی، گامی درخصوص پاسخگویی به این ابهامات بردارد. خوشبختانه دراین‌باره دو سند بین‌المللی ویژه یعنی «پیش‌نویس مواد مسئولیت دولت» و «سند مونترو» وجود دارد که به‌رغم لازم‌الاجرا نبودنشان، می‌توان در این رهگذر از آنها استفاده جست.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Responsibility of States and Private Military and Security Companies(PMCs)

نویسندگان [English]

  • SA H 1
  • S N 2
  • M R 3
  • fardin rostami amani 4
1 P
2 P
3 P
4 azad
چکیده [English]

International relations has been witnessing of many Non –governmental players in the arena under the name of the Private Military and Security Companies (PMCs) in the recent decades. Their ever increasing growth and participation in Internal and international armed conflict have caused many problems. One of the most important of these problems is the determination of responsibility for unlawful activities of the PMSCs and ascertaining of the responsible state in this regards. The States have been divided into three groups; the state who employ the PMSCs, the state whom the PMSCs are national of it and the state which they play role in its territory. Now the problem is which state shall be responsible for unlawful activities of the PMSCs. This essay is going to ascertain due responsible for such acts based on valid International documents and regulations. Fortunately, there are two main internationally recognized documents; the Draft Articles on the Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts ("Draft Articles") by the International Law Commission (ILC) in August 2001 and the Montreux Document which has been used by the author.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Private Military and Security Companies (PMCs)
  • Responsibility of States
  • Humanitarian Law
  • and Human Rights
  • Draft Articles
  • and the Montreux Document
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